The Barbary Pirates were based in North Africa, and were
the scourge of both the Mediterranean and Atlantic seas. They were
active from shortly after the Christian conquest of Granada in 1492
until about 1830, when the pirates were finally brought under control
after repeated attacks from, and treaties with, various Western powers.
The 17th century, was the period during which the activities of the
Barbary Pirates reached their peak.
While the Barbary pirates were not averse to acquiring property, their
main focus was on capturing people - both on the sea and on land, to
sell as slaves. Historically, it is said that most of the Barbary
pirates were followers of Islam. Yet, a vast number of the pirates where
actually Christian renegades from England, Holland, and from throughout
Europe. Many of these Christian renegades started their careers as
privateers (basically pirates sanctioned by a government to prey upon
enemy vessels), before turning to unsanctioned piracy. Many of these
renegades eventually 'turned Turk' (i.e., converted to Islam) and went
a-pirating, more out of avarice and a sense of adventure than for any
religious or political purpose.
Slavery and the slave trade
saw primarily white Europeans being sold
into slavery in North Africa by the Barbary Pirates, at the same time
during which Europeans were capturing and enslaving Africans.
History of the Barbary Pirates
Admiral, naval hero, privateer, warrior and
empire-builder, Kheir ed-Din or Barbarossa, as he was known in the West,
was a legendary figure. He was born on the island of Midilli, Greece, to
a Turkish father and Greek mother. He rose to become High Admiral of the Ottoman Navy,
Sultan of Algiers and friend and advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent.
The term "Barbary" derives from Barbarossa (red beard) and refers to the
early days of Barbarossa’s career when he and his three
brothers turned privateers in the Mediterranean to counteract the privateering
Knights of St. John of the Island of Rhodes.
In February 1538, a Holy League comprising the Papacy in Rome, Spain,
the Holy Roman Empire Under Charles V, and the
Maltese Knights of St.
John of Jerusalem, arrayed themselves against the Ottomans. But
Barbarossa defeated its combined fleet, commanded by Andrea Doria, at
the Battle of Preveza in September 1538. This sea battle secured the
eastern Mediterranean for the Turks (until their defeat at the
Lepanto in 1571). Thereafter, Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha became one of
the great figures at the Court of Constantinople until his death on the
4th of July, 1546, at his palace in Istanbul. Turkish records recorded
'The King of the Sea is dead'.
The Barbary States was a collective name given to a
string of North African seaports stretching from Tangiers to Tripoli.
These ports were under the nominal control of the Ottoman Empire,
Intrepid, loaded with explosive ordinance, and sailed by a crew of
volunteers into Tripoli`s harbor, was an incendiary ship, ordered to
burn the Barbary Fleet, but was instead destroyed by Tripoli's
exploded killing its entire crew.
|but their real rulers were sea rovers or corsairs who sallied forth from the coast
cities to plunder Mediterranean shipping and capture slaves for labor or
By the middle of the seventeenth century, piracy along the
Barbary Coast had become a relatively easy, publicly acclaimed way of
making a living. The pirates were technically corsairs, who were given a
government license to steal, for piracy was profitable to the pashas who
ruled these coastal cities as independent and absolute monarchs. They
answered to no one and considered violence and piracy a tradition.
European nations chose to pay tribute to the Barbary Pirate
strongholds for their ships safe passage while traversing the
Mediterranean Sea. The focus being
always upon the gold and other fantastic profits of the Americas.
The tribute was mere pittance compared to the riches of the colonies.
The mighty British navy could easily have defeated the pirates.
During the colonial period, the British had also paid tribute for any
"Old Ironsides" August 3, 1804
Leading squadron in an attack on the pirate lair at Tripoli
|vessels from the colonies, and France had done
so during the American Revolution.
By the time the United States
gained its independence in the late 1700s, the Barbary States had come
to regard the Mediterranean as their own private lake. It was a shock to
the newly independent United States when one day in 1785 an American
ship was seized and its crew jailed by a pirate ship in the employ of
The Barbary Pirates became the incentive for the newly created United
States to establish a navy in 1794. One of the six frigates built was
the USS Constitution, which is still in service today and puts to sea
After ten years time and a hefty ransom of one million to recover some
of the poor souls taken captive, with all attempts at diplomacy
rejected, the United States refused to pay further extravagant tribute.
As a result, Yusuf Karamanli, the Pasha of Tripoli, declared war on the
US on May 10, 1801. To make his point, Yusuf had his soldiers chop down
the flagpole in front of the American consulate, which meant war.
Seven U.S. warships were sent to the Mediterranean and through 1803
the U.S. maintained a blockade of the Barbary ports and attacked Barbary
pirate ships. A turning point in the war came in 1805, at the
Battle of Derna, by a combined force of United States Marines
and Arab, Greek and Berber mercenaries. The Marines wore leather around
their necks as protection from sabers, leaving them with the name
On June 10, 1805, Tripoli's pasha signed a treaty ending hostilities
with the United States.
In 1815, a Second Barbary War was waged against Tripoli, Tunis, and
Algeria known collectively as the Barbary states, after the Pasha of
Algiers had resumed attacks on American vessels and the seizure of
American sailors. The U.S. therefore responded by sending a naval fleet
back into the Mediterranean. The fleet, under the command of Steven
Decatur, captured several Algerian ships and forced the Pasha to sign a
treaty agreeing to return all captives and to cease attack on American
shipping. This marked the end of the Barbary domination of the
Ching Shih (1775-1844)
translates “Widow of Zheng”. She was born Shih Yang (or Shi Xianggu) and
was a member of the Danjia (boat-dwelling) people of Guangdong (Canton)
Province. Nothing is known about her early life.
A prominent pirate from a family of pirates was Zheng
Yi. His family had been raiding and terrorizing the Chinese coast with
impunity since the mid-seventeenth century. During the late Ming era,
four prominent Danjia Clans; Shi, Ma, Zheng and Xu, dominated the piracy
trade at the mouth of the Pearl River.
In 1801, Shi Xianggu of the Shi clan married Zheng Yi of
the Zheng clan. Zheng was the leader of the Red Flag pirate fleet, and
Shi became known as Zheng Yi Sao (literally "wife of older brother Zheng
Yi"). They adopted a son named Chang Pao.
First off, they
went to Annam (Vietnam) to fight in the Tay Son Rebellion. After
returning to Guangdong, China, they conducted joint operations with
another pirate, Wu Shi'er.
|The pair rapidly extended their scope of influence and eventually
established the Cantonese Pirate Coalition. Prior to forming the
coalition, the Zhengs already had 200 ships under their command. The
size of their fleet expanded to 600 ships after the coalition was
established. By 1806, virtually every Chinese vessel passing the coast
paid protection money. Their fleet ranged afield all the way from Korea
When Zheng Yi was put to his death in 1807 by a raging
Typhoon, Ching Shih took control of the fleet. The Red Flag Fleet was
then comprised of more than 1,200 ships, manned by 60,000 pirates, to
terrorize the South China Seas. The fleet was vicious and deadly, and
she was said to rule with an iron fist, imposing harsh punishments.
|The Red Flag Fleet was one of the largest navies in the world and
nothing could stand against it. Ching Shih extorted tribute from
merchants all over the China Seas and from coastal towns from Macau to
Canton. She began to impose taxes and levies and enforced her own laws.
|Chinese naval forces attempted to end Ching Shih's reign, but her
massive pirate fleet kept defeating the Chinese ships in battle. When
forty ships were dispatched she sank all but 28, which she added to her
fleet. One admiral committed suicide to avoid being taken prisoner. The
Chinese navy couldn’t catch Ching Shih. British and Portuguese bounty
hunters were called in. They were mercilessly defeated.
Running out of options to stop Ching Shih’s reign of terror, the Chinese
government offered a truce in 1810. Ching Shih could keep her treasure
and would not be punished if she surrendered. She agreed to the terms,
and most of her pirates were given the same deal. Out of all her men,
only 126 were executed. The rest were given government jobs or military
positions. Some people believe that Ching Shih was part of a powerful
family that actually controlled the government, but this has never been
When the Opium War broke out, Ching Shih, now in her sixties, was still
active in resistance fighting against the British, helping Lin Zexu with
his battle plans.
Chinese Pirates Canton
|In retirement, Ching Shih remarried and had children. When her new
husband died in 1822, she moved back to Canton and opened a combination
casino and brothel which she operated until her death at the age of 69,
I Sailed with Chinese Pirates
by Aleko E. Lilius
"Yo ho ho and a bottle of Maotai! Lilius's forgotten
classic reads as boldly and bloodily as a Chinese 'Treasure Island'.
What is perhaps most remarkable about this extraordinary piece of
journalism is that the writer lived to tell the tale."
Adam Williams author of The Dragon's Tail
It is 1930 and piracy is rampant on the South China seas. Murderous
bands of cutthroats roam the Pearl River Delta and coastal shipping
routes, an ever-present menace to the trade of Hong Kong and beyond.
Globetrotting journalist Aleko E. Lilius sets out to infiltrate these
mysterious pirate gangs and is eventually taken into the confidence of
South China’s notorious pirate queen, Lai Choi San. Lilius lives, eats,
sleeps and of course sails with the pirates, witnessing their harrowing
misdeeds and delivering a sensational, rollicking tale of adventure.
Who is Aleko E. Lilius?
Aleko E. Lilius (1890-1977) was a journalist, writer of fiction and
adventurer born in St. Petersburg in 1890. Constantly on the move, his
flair for the exotic led him to explore Asia, North Africa and Mexico.
He is best known for his thrilling exploits with the Pirate Queen of
South China in I Sailed with Chinese Pirates and the Smuggling Queen of
Tangiers in Turbulent Tangiers. Lilius spent much of his later life in
America before retiring to Finland to paint.
Pearl River - Canton
|Journalist Aleko E. Lilius came to the Far East seeking adventures
to write about. He found them, and published lurid accounts of piracy
and murder that became his 1930 best seller I Sailed with Chinese
In many ways Lilius was an old-school foreign correspondent; ranging far
and wide and often out of touch for months on end, leaving his editors
tearing their hair out and his audience anticipating his next adventure.
Then he would suddenly reappear in one fantastical and thrilling
situation after another. Most of the 1920s and 1930s found Lilius
roaming around North Africa, Asia and Mexico. In Mexico he was the
photographer accompanying the linguist Rudolf Schuller investigating
American-Indian languages and dialects; then he appeared in Morocco
among the souks and bazaars; then in China sailing with pirates and
lodging in opium dens.
||While researching I Sailed with Chinese Pirates, Lilius lived much
of the time in the Philippines, using his home in Zamboanga as a base to
explore the South China Sea region.
In 1931 the New York Times reviewed
A meeting with a mysterious woman pirate chief, Lai Choi San, with
several thousand ruthless buccaneers under command, is described in the
volume I Sailed With Chinese Pirates, which is published today by D.
Appleton & Co. Aleko E. Lilius, English journalist, while traveling in
the Orient, according to the publishers, succeeded in winning the
confidence of this unusual woman, and he accompanied her and some of her
desperadoes on one of their expeditions on a junk equipped with cannon.
Mr. Lilius's publishers describe him as the only white man who has ever
sailed with these pirates...
Lilius provided graphic portraits of the cut-throat pirates and
readers were especially thrilled by the idea of Lai Choi San, the female
Canton Docks - Loading River Boat
|I Sailed with Chinese Pirates is a useful history of the
period and the lawlessness of the southern China coast in the 1920s, but
above all Aleko Lilius's book is an adventure with a capital A. There
are facts and eye-witness accounts for the historian but for the casual
reader he hits all the notes required to ensure a bestseller — opium
dens, casinos with endless games of fan-tan, cutlass-wielding pirates
and real Spanish doubloons recovered from sunken treasure. Lilius
himself described I Sailed with Chinese Pirates as "a page from the Book
of Almost Unbelievable Adventures". It's as thrilling now as it was to
his readership in 1931.
|It should also be noted that Lilius isn't exaggerating
the threat of piracy in the South China Sea and particularly around Hong
Kong and southern China in the 1920s. The area was indeed infested with
pirates who menaced both commercial and passenger shipping as well as
vulnerable coastal communities. Lilius provides us with a detailed list
of ships attacked during the 1920s to prove the point (Photo Right).
Excerpt from "I Sailed with Chinese Pirates", Chapter
by Aleko E. Lilius
It happened that she was going in the direction of Bias
Bay, she said, and she was willing to take me there and bring me back.
But there would be some delay, for she had business to transact on the
way — very serious business. The delay, however, would be insignificant,
she explained. Then as an afterthought, did I know that the trip would
be rather dangerous?
She smiled, but did not answer.
* * * * *
Here was I, an American journalist, getting the chance of a lifetime, to
sail with Chinese pirates to the central nest of the most merciless gang
of high-seas robbers in the world, in an armoured junk commanded by a
female pirate. Small wonder that I could hardly believe in my luck. What
a woman she was! Rather slender and short, her hair jet black, with jade
pins gleaming in the knot at the neck, her ear-rings and bracelets of
the same precious apple-green stone. She was exquisitely dressed in a
white satin robe fastened with green jade buttons, and green silk
slippers. She wore a few plain gold rings on her left hand; her right
hand was unadorned. Her face and dark eyes were intelligent — not too
Chinese, although purely Mongolian, of course — and rather hard. She was
probably not yet forty.
|Every move she made and every word she spoke told plainly that she
expected to be obeyed, and as I had occasion to learn later, she was
What a character she must be! What a wealth of material for a novelist
or journalist! Merely to write her biography would be to produce a tale
of adventure such as few people dream of.
Chinese Pirate Ship Deck - Circa 1930's
A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel.
The English name comes from Malay. Junks were originally developed
during the Han Dynasty (220 BC-200 AD) and further evolved to represent
one of the most successful ship types in history
That evening I heard from an American who had sailed the
waters around Macao for fifteen years, the following story, about this
"Her name is Lai Choi San," he began, "So many stories centre
about her that it is almost impossible to tell where truth ends and
legend begins. As a matter of fact, she might be described as a female
Chinese version of Robin Hood. They have much in common. Undoubtedly she
is the Queen of the Macao pirates. I have never seen her. I have almost
doubted her existence until you told me of meeting her. She is said to
have inherited the business and the ships from her father, after the old
man had gone to his ancestors 'with his slippers on' during a glorious
fight between his men and a rival gang. The authorities had given him
some sort of refuge here in Macao, with the secret understanding that he
and his gang should protect the colony's enormous fishing fleets and do
general police duty on the high seas. He even obtained the title of
Inspector from somebody in authority, and that, of course, placed him
morally far above the other pirate gangs."
"He owned seven fully-armored junks when he died. To-day Lai Choi San
owns twelve junks; nobody seems to know how or when she acquired the
additional five, but it is certain that she has them. She has barrels of
money, and her will is law."
"You may ask," he continued, "why I call them pirates, since their job
is only to 'guard' the numerous fishing craft. However, the other gangs
want the same privileges as the present 'inspectors' have, therefore
they harass and plunder any ship or village they can lay their hands
upon. They kidnap men, women and children, hold them for ransom, ransack
their homes, and burn their junks and sampans. It is up to the
protectors to undo the work of these others and to avenge any wrong done
them. Naturally, there is bitter and continuous warfare between these
"This avenging business is where the piratical characteristics of the
'protectors' come in. There is frequent and profitable avenging going on
wherever the various gangs meet. Lai Choi San is supposed to be
the worst of them all; she is said to be both ruthless and cruel. When
her ships are merely doing patrol duty she does not bother to accompany
them, but when she goes out 'on business' she attends to it personally.
When she climbs aboard any of her ships there is an ill-wind blowing for
Chinese Pirate Gun Boat - 1931
|An orange-colorred haze hung over the hills of Lappa. Slowly the
brown sails of our ship crept up, while the barefooted crew scurried
back and forth upon the decks. Finally the junk was clear to heave away.
On a nearby junk a Taoist priest in demon-red robes kowtowed and burned
fire crackers to his special deity in order to drive away the evil
spirits — all this for a few cents silver. I was dazed! It was difficult
to believe in my luck.
|At last I was actually tramping the deck of an honest-to-goodness
pirate ship! Our junk lay hidden among many other similar craft. It
would have been impossible to pick it out from the shore, and I wondered
how the captain would maneuver us out from such a crowded jumble of
boats. But I did not remain in ignorance long. Members of the crew
lowered a dinghy, rowed out some distance, and dropped an anchor. Then
the dinghy returned, and all hands hauled upon the anchor line until the
junk began to move slowly forward. Then the maneuver was repeated until
we had worked ourselves out into the open water. Hardly a sound was to
be heard on board-only the shuffling feet of the crew.
I took a look at the crew. Here in South China I had been used to small,
narrow-chested, almost effeminate men; but these fellows were almost
giants — muscular, heavy-chested, half-naked, hard-looking-real — bandit
types. Some of them wore the wide-brimmed hat such as one sees all over
Southern China. Some had tied red kerchiefs around their heads and
Captured Pirates - Circa 1930's
|There was nothing for me to do but climb up on the poop and make
myself as inconspicuous as possible. I felt in the mood to do just that
too—a white man, an intruder, searching for unusual "copy." What right,
after all, had I to pry into their secrets? I was not a Secret Service
man, nor a government employee...
After publishing "I Sailed with
Chinese Pirates" Lilius later went on to other parts of the world
and to other thrilling adventures and remained popular with readers.
His 1956 book Turbulent Tangier, an account of the chaos of post-war
Tangiers featuring gold traffickers, the Smuggler Queen of Tangiers
and the last days of French rule, sold well but it was "I Sailed
with Chinese Pirates" that remains his best-known tale of adventure.
Chinese Pirate Trident
Red Hand Ship
Angry Pirates Proliferate
The piracy business has changed a lot since 2010,
when it had reached levels of activity not seen in over a century. But
over the next three years that all changed. By 2013 attacks on ships by
Somali pirates had declined 95 percent from the 2010 peak. It’s been
over two years since the Somali pirates captured a large commercial
ship, and even smaller fishing ships and dhows (small local cargo ships
of traditional construction) are harder for them to grab. The rapid
collapse of the Somali pirates since 2010 was no accident. It was all a
matter of organization, international cooperation and innovation. This
came to consist of over two dozen warships and several dozen manned and
unmanned aircraft, as well as support from space satellites and major
intelligence and police agencies.
Back in 2010 the Somali pirates got most of the
publicity but they only carried out 44 percent of the attacks. What was
newsworthy was that the Somalis accounted for 90 percent of the
hijackings, and some 80 percent of the piracy was in and around the
Indian Ocean. Some 44 percent of all attacks involved the pirates
boarding the ships, while in 18 percent the pirates just fired on ships,
without getting aboard. There are still pirates out there, but they are
more into robbery than kidnapping.
The trend, was definitely up for two decades, with
the big increase coming in the last decade
1991: About 120 known
cases of real or attempted piracy
1994: over 200 cases
2000: 471 cases
2005: 359 cases
2010: over 400 cases
|Piracy hit a trough from the late nineteenth century into the later
twentieth. That was because the Great Powers had pretty much divided up
the whole planet, and policed it. The pirates had no place to hide.
Piracy began to revive in a modest way beginning in the 1970s, with the
collapse of many post-colonial regimes. Note that what constitutes an
act of piracy is often not clearly defined. What most people agree on is
that piracy is non-state sanctioned use of force at sea or from the sea.
This could include intercepting a speedboat to rob the passengers, but
that's usually just thought of as armed robbery. And something like the
seizure of the Achille Lauro in 1985 is considered terrorism, rather
than piracy. In the past, some marginal states have sanctioned piratical
operations, like the Barbary States, but that is rare today.
Pirates usually function on the margins of society,
trying to get a cut of the good life in situations where there aren't
many options. This is usually in areas where state control is weakest or
absent, in failing and "flailed" states. A flailing state is something
like Nigeria, Indonesia, or the Philippines, where the government is
managing to keep things together but is faced with serious problems with
areas that are sometimes out of control. In a failed state like, where
there isn't a government at all, pirates can do whatever they want.
The solution to piracy is essentially on land; go into uncontrolled
areas and institute governance. This has been the best approach since
the Romans eliminated piracy in the Mediterranean over 2,000 years ago.
Trying to tackle piracy on the maritime end can reduce the incidence of
piracy, but can't eliminate it because the pirates still have a safe
base on land.
|In the modern world the "land" solution often can't be implemented.
Who wants to put enough troops into Somalia to eliminate piracy? And
flailing states are likely to be very sensitive about their sovereignty
if you offer to help them control marginal areas.
But while there have
been far fewer attacks off Somalia there has been a big jump in attacks
in the Straits of Malacca (sevenfold increase since 2009) and off
Nigeria (a similar increase). The big difference is that only off
Somalia could ships and crews be taken and held for ransom for long
periods. Everywhere else the pirates were usually only interested in
robbing the crew and stealing anything portable that they could get into
their small boats. Off the Nigerian coast pirates sometimes take some
ship officers with them to hold for ransom or force the crew to move
small tankers to remote locations where most of the cargo (of oil) can
be transferred to another ship and sold on the black market.
Meanwhile there are two areas where pirates still thrive. Piracy in the
vital (most of the world's oil exports pass through here) Straits of
Malacca was largely an Indonesian phenomenon. It bothered the
Singaporeans a lot, the Malaysians a little, and the Indonesians not
much. But as Indonesia began stabilizing itself over the past decade
(the 2004 Aceh Peace settlement, the institution of a more democratic
government, defeating Islamic terrorism), the rate of piracy declined.
This decline was facilitated by the combined police effort of Singapore,
Malaysia, and Indonesia itself, which didn't come about until a lot of
issues among the three states were resolved. Neither Indonesia nor
Malaysia were all that upset about smuggling, which bothered Singapore.
Indonesia and Singapore still have some problems, as Singapore more or
less encourages sand stealing in enormous volumes from Indonesia. Since
2010 there has been an increase in piracy off Indonesia, largely because
the Indonesians reduced their anti-piracy patrols without warning or
explanation. There are lots of targets, with over 50,000 large ships
moving through the Straits of Malacca each year. That’s 120-150 a day.
Lots of targets. The shallow and tricky waters in the strait forces the
big ships to go slow enough (under 30 kilometers an hour) for speed
boats to catch them.
There are some regional constraints on piracy. There seems to be little
or no piracy in the Red Sea and Bab al-Mandeb. Apparently this was
because the smugglers decided the pirates interfered with their business
(by bringing in coalition naval forces), and so shut down any pirate
The Gulf of Guinea has become another hot spot for modern (non
ship-napping) piracy. Nigeria is badly run and most of the oil revenue
is stolen by corrupt officials, leaving people living in the oil
producing areas near the coast very angry. More piracy has been one
result of all that anger.
"... let's jump on
Board and cut them to pieces" (Battle cry of Edward "Blackbeard"
"Queen Anne's Revenge"
Blackbeard's ship, Queen Anne's Revenge, now being
explored by marine archeologists off the coast of North Carolina, is
giving up more than just its treasures, it's also revealing the infamous
pirate's terrifying tactics. And what researchers are finding are an
ingenious array of improvised weapons, designed to injure and
incapacitate as many people as possible, while leaving ships and their
valuable cargo intact. The wreckage has yielded
cannon that fired canvas bags filled with glass, nails, and spikes, or
batches of nine-inch bolts—devastating to humans, but not so much to
"These weapons would terrorize the enemy," said the expedition's leader.
“This vessel is heavily armed but the crew are not using that many
cannonballs. Mostly, they seem to have used these improvised missiles
that can be used to take out the crew or disarm the other ship’s sails."
But more than just maiming people, Blackbeard's goal appears to have
been to win without fighting at all. "Their aim was to capture a ship by
intimidation and leave it in pristine condition," said one expert. "They
didn’t want to damage the ship or its cargo."
|He was a real-life pirate of the Caribbean, who carefully cultivated
a bloodthirsty reputation that struck fear through seafarers. Now,
almost 300 years after Blackbeard's death, marine archaeologists have
discovered a huge anchor and an arsenal of "improvised" ammunition from
the wreck of his flagship,
Queen Anne’s Revenge.
The ship ran
aground on a sandbank about a mile from shore on June 10 1718, as
Blackbeard’s flotilla of four vessels was heading for Beaufort Inlet, in
the then British colony of North Carolina.
The shipwreck lies in about 25ft of water just off the coast of the
state of North Carolina and the expedition to recover artifacts is being
led by the state’s Department of Cultural Resources.
The leader of the expedition and deputy state archaeologist, Dr Mark
Wilde-Ramsing, said: “This vessel is heavily armed but the crew are not
using that many cannonballs. Mostly, they seem to have used these
improvised missiles that can be used to take out the crew or disarm the
other ship’s sails.
||“These weapons would terrorize the enemy. It is all part of
Blackbeard’s terror tactics. It has been claimed that he deliberately
cultivated a fearsome reputation so enemy sailors would not put up a
fight, allowing him to seize vessels without the need for violence.
earlier dives, the researchers have found evidence of a range of
“makeshift” devices, such as canvas bags filled with a lethal mass of
lead shot, nails, spikes and glass and then fired from the cannon,
pouring a deadly hail of projectiles onto opponents. This type of
bundled ammunition was known as “langrage” and was not used by Royal
Navy ships, according to 18th-century documents.
The ship’s unusual arsenal already identified also includes nine-inch
bolts, which were pushed down in the barrels of cannons and would by
fired out by a cannonball loaded behind them, as well as “double-headed”
cannonballs – where two are linked together by a bar or chain – and
which produced a spinning effect when fired from
cannon and were
effective at bringing down rigging.
|Angus Konstam, author of Piracy: The Complete History, said: “The
improvised charges show a lot of ingenuity on the part of the pirates.
These would have been anti-personal charges. They wouldn’t do much
damage to a ship but would do a lot of damage to people in it. Their aim
was to capture a ship by intimidation and leave it in pristine
condition. They didn’t want to damage the ship or its cargo.”
Blackbeard is believed to have been born Edward Teach, or Edward Thatch,
in Bristol, in 1680. He fought as a privateer for the British, attacking
Spanish and French ships in the War of the Spanish Succession, before
turning to piracy. His troop captured a French slave ship called La
Concorde near the Caribbean island of St Vincent in November 1717 and
renamed it Queen Anne’s Revenge. It became his flagship, sailing
alongside three smaller sloops.
Blackbeard’s striking appearance and character has inspired many
subsequent depictions of pirates. He is said to have had 14 wives, and
would tie burning fuses into his long beard before battle to give
himself a demonic appearance. His flag depicted a skeleton spearing a
heart while toasting the devil.
|After the loss of his flagship, Blackbeard sought and was granted a
pardon. But he continued to seize ships, and the Royal Navy were sent to
track him down. He was killed in a battle in November 1718, after which
his head was cut off and his body tossed overboard.
According to legend, his headless corpse swam around his ship five times
before he finally died. His head was attached to the bowsprit of a Navy
ship and his skull was later used as a punch bowl.